The OUGH Chart
As Dr Duffy wrote in 1972: "This chart cracks the hard crust of a nut whose meat is soft enough."
It deals with the Old English syllable ough which can be pronounced in eight different ways.
Dr Duffy compiled a clever mnemonic containing the eight variations which, when learned by heart, enables access to the correct pronunciations.
A test for competency includes the reading of tough, though, through and thorough.
See the Manual for full details of the proper use of this chart.
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B.A., M.Ed, T.C.